Static and extremely low frequency electromag... [J Cell Biochem. 1993] - PubMed - NCBI
Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio 78284-7762.
The circadian rhythm of melatonin production (high melatonin levels at night and low during the day) in the mammalian pineal gland is modified by visible portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, i.e., light, and reportedly by extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields as well as by static magnetic field exposure. Both light and non-visible electromagnetic field exposure at night depress the conversion of serotonin (5HT) to melatonin within the pineal gland. Several reports over the last decade showed that the chronic exposure of rats to a 60 Hz electric field, over a range of field strengths, severely attenuated the nighttime rise in pineal melatonin production; however, more recent studies have not confirmed this initial observation. Sinusoidal magnetic field exposure also has been shown to interfere with the nocturnal melatonin forming ability of the pineal gland although the number of studies using these field exposures is small. On the other hand, static magnetic fields have been repeatedly shown to perturb the circadian melatonin rhythm. The field strengths in these studies were almost always in the geomagnetic range (0.2 to 0.7 Gauss or 20 to 70 mu tesla) and most often the experimental animals were subjected either to a partial rotation or to a total inversion of the horizontal component of the geomagnetic field. These experiments showed that several parameters in the indole cascade in the pineal gland are modified by these field exposures; thus, pineal cyclic AMP levels, N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity (the rate limiting enzyme in pineal melatonin production), hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT) activity (the melatonin forming enzyme), and pineal and blood melatonin concentrations were depressed in various studies. Likewise, increases in pineal levels of 5HT and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5HIAA) were also seen in these glands; these increases are consistent with a depressed melatonin synthesis. The mechanisms whereby non-visible electromagnetic fields influence the melatonin forming ability of the pineal gland remain unknown; however, the retinas in particular have been theorized to serve as magnetoreceptors with the altered melatonin cycle being a consequence of a disturbance in the neural biological clock, i.e., the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus, which generates the circadian melatonin rhythm. The disturbances in pineal melatonin production induced by either light exposure or non-visible electromagnetic field exposure at night appear to be the same but whether the underlying mechanisms are similar remains unknown.
Inconsistent suppression of nocturnal pineal melatonin synthesis and serum melatonin levels in rats exposed to pulsed DC magnetic fields.
Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Poeggeler B, Kavet R. Bioelectromagnetics. 1998; 19(5):318-29.
Electric field exposure alters serum melatonin but not pineal melatonin synthesis in male rats.
Grota LJ, Reiter RJ, Keng P, Michaelson S. Bioelectromagnetics. 1994; 15(5):427-37.
Sinusoidal 50-Hz magnetic fields depress rat pineal NAT activity and serum melatonin. Role of duration and intensity of exposure.
Selmaoui B, Touitou Y. Life Sci. 1995; 57(14):1351-8.
[Evaluation of the effect of magnetic fields on the secretion of melatonin in humans and rats. Circadian study].
Touitou Y, Selmaoui B, Lambrozo J, Auzeby A. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2002; 186(9):1625-39; discussion 1639-41.
Melatonin suppression by static and extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields: relationship to the reported increased incidence of cancer.
Reiter RJ. Rev Environ Health. 1994 Jul-Dec; 10(3-4):171-86.
Effect of electromagnetic field exposure on the reproductive system.
Gye MC, Park CJ. Clin Exp Reprod Med. 2012 Mar; 39(1):1-9. Epub 2012 Mar 31.
Effects of power frequency electromagnetic fields on melatonin and sleep in the rat.
Dyche J, Anch AM, Fogler KA, Barnett DW, Thomas C. Emerg Health Threats J. 2012; 5. Epub 2012 Apr 20.
Are stress responses to geomagnetic storms mediated by the cryptochrome compass system?
Close J. Proc Biol Sci. 2012 Jun 7; 279(1736):2081-90. Epub 2012 Mar 14.
Calculated set of PubMed citations closely related to the selected article(s) retrieved using a word weight algorithm. Related articles are displayed in ranked order from most to least relevant, with the “linked from” citation displayed first.
PubChem chemical compound records that are classified under the same Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) controlled vocabulary as the current articles.
PubChem chemical substance (submitted) records that are classified under the same Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) controlled vocabulary as the current articles.
Full-text articles in the PubMed Central Database that cite the current articles.